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The Galactic Federation Database - Updated 01/25/17

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The Galactic Federation Database - Updated 01/25/17

Postby Mea quidem sententia » Tue Sep 27, 2016 4:23 pm

The previous database has long been defunct and there is no one to update the main page, so it was decided by the Supreme Council that a new database be created. The Galactic Federation Database is dedicated to giving clear, concise information regard different galaxies, planets, flora and fauna, marines, and hunters. The Database will also cover empirical data to cover a range of fields, such as astronomy, biology, chemistry, laser science, and plasma science.

Beams
Power Beam
Data

The power beam is described as "the basic energy unit produced by [. . . the] standard arm cannon."[1] It is a "standard energy beam"[2] with "infinite ammunition".[3][4] This beam weapon "overheats quickly",[5] as evinced by the heat shimmer. It produces light[6] and heat.[7] It's also capable of launching objects with a mass of at least 146 kg.[8][9] A feature the power beam has is its ability to defeat Chozo ghosts. These spectral entities are "invulnerable to natural energy types, such as fire, ice, and electricity."[10]

Analysis
A few have speculated that because Chozo ghosts are invulnerable to "natural energy types", the power beam must be unnatural or even supernatural. That which is natural may be defined as deriving from nature and isn't artificial or synthetic.[11] Since there are spectral entities like Chozo ghosts, Covern, and Phantoon, it may also be thought that the natural pertains only to the physical or material. Physical things aren't necessarily made of matter, such as electromagnetic radiation.

Electricity, ice, and plasma are not only natural. They're also material. Electricity is a charge. Ice is solidified water. Plasma is ionized gas. Missiles do not work against Chozo ghosts, either, even though missiles aren't natural. This might give the impression that the power beam is supernatural. If it is, there's nothing to be said. Of course, Covern and Phantoon are vulnerable to missiles and other beam weapons as well. Something else is likely playing a role. It's tempting to blame Phazon.

Nothing about Phazon is stated to be the cause of Chozo ghosts' invulnerability. Instead, the aggressive and erratic behavior of these spectral entities is associated with the effects of Phazon. Chozo ghosts are invulnerable due to their "partially-phased nature", which is called a "bioelectric field".[12] If this bioelectric field is anything like Earth's magnetic field, then it might explain why electricity and plasma don't work on Chozo ghosts. I cannot say for certain.

Let's consider more carefully what "fire, ice, and electricity" have in common. Fire is a process of combustion. It's very likely that "flame" is meant instead. Ice is the solidification of water, although other liquids can be solidified, i.e., frozen as well. Electricity is not an easy word to define since people have different understandings of what electricity is. Most people might think of electricity as a type of energy, but it's not a type of energy. There is such thing as electrical energy, of course.

All of Samus' acquired beams are made up of mass. So are her missiles. Does this mean the power beam lacks mass? Before this can be concluded, perhaps other features all four beams share should be considered. The power, wave, ice, and plasma beam produce heat, which is the flow of thermal energy. Yes, ice produces a small amount of thermal energy, which means it does produce heat. It's simply a negligible amount. If heat was the reason why Chozo ghosts are invulnerable, then the power beam shouldn't work.

It seems all we're left with is that the power beam is not natural, which is to say, probably artificial. Perhaps I'm quibbling when I point out that neither of the other beam weapons would be natural, since they are produced through artificial means. To claim that this beam weapon is supernatural doesn't work for me. Considering that the Chozo can generate and manipulate energy[13]—whatever that energy may be—this must be the case with Samus' power beam.

This is understandably an unsatisfying answer to the question. One simply cannot just have energy. Electromagnetic radiation is made up of massless particles called photons. This might be described as "pure energy", even though such a phrase is meaningless. This kind of phrase might be thought of as "pure", simply because it's energy without mass, but photons aren't themselves energy. They carry energy. Thus, it's not really appropriate to think of Samus' power beam as energy.

Unfortunately, in spite of the fact that the power beam shouldn't be thought of as energy, it may very well be "pure energy". If the Chozo can generate and manipulate energy, then this is probably what Samus is doing, and all that can be gathered from this is that it produces light, heat, and force. Or perhaps the scan isn't reliable and the power beam should be considered plasma at a lower temperature. Whatever the beam might be, not much else can be said.

References
  1. Power Beam - Official Metroid Prime Web site
  2. Normal Beam - Official Metroid Fusion Web site
  3. Power Beam - Metroid Prime Hunters Logbook Entry
  4. Power Beam - Metroid Prime 2: Echoes manual, p. 16
  5. Power Beam - Metroid Prime Hunters Logbook Entry
  6. "Immobile organisms entirely composed of ocular tissue. Capable of launching sustained energy beams when active, the Eyon is sensitive to light and will close shut if a bright flash ignites nearby." - Eyon, Metroid Prime Logbook Entry
  7. The power beam will leave a burnt mark if it hits a wall.
  8. This is based on Hamwi's method, which is 106 lb. + 6 lb/in(x - 60 in.), where x is 96 in., which I then converted to kilograms.
  9. Samus v. Rundas - Metroid Prime 3: Corruption
  10. Chozo Ghost - Official Metroid Prime Web site; cf. Chozo Ghost, Metroid Prime Logbook Entry
  11. Natural - Oxford English Dictionary
  12. Chozo Ghost - Official Metroid Prime Web site; cf. Chozo Ghost, Metroid Prime Logbook Entry
  13. The scan regarding U-Mos states that his "Ability to generate and manipulate energy [is] on par with that of the Chozo." This could be applied to other Luminoths as well. Since Samus has been integrated with Chozo DNA and wears powered armor made by the Chozo, she is likely generating energy at will.

Plasma Beam
Data

It might seem like an obvious answer. The plasma beam is plasma. That much we can all agree on. The question is mainly concerned with how this plasma is generated. It’s apparent that the plasma beam during Samus’ mission on Tallon IV and SkyTown, Elysia are different from those she acquires in her other missions. These beams engulf enemies in flames, melt ice, melt metal, and aren’t capable of passing through solids. So how is the plasma generated during Samus’ other missions? As far as I am aware, there are only three ways of generating plasma.

  1. Dielectric breakdown
  2. Lasers
  3. Temperature

Dielectric breakdown
When I talk about dielectric breakdown, I am referring to electrical breakdown. Electric insulators are known for resisting electricity. Air, concrete, plastic, and rubber are but a few electric insulators. However, all insulators have limits. They can only resist for so long. The listed electric insulators have a breakdown voltage, which is when the insulator becomes electrically conductive. How do these eventually become electrically conductive? Matter is made of mass, and mass is made up of atoms. Atoms contain electrons, and electricity is the flow of electrons.[1]

If we were to ask how what the voltage breakdown would be in air, we would find that it’s 33 kV/cm.[2] The length of the plasma beam appears a little longer than Samus comparatively speaking. Thus, if we went with 2 m.—and since there are 200 cm. in 2 m.—then using (33 kV/cm.)(200 cm.) would give us 6,600 kV, or 6.6 MV. That is 132% more voltage than the world’s largest Tesla coil voltage.[3] We do see that the plasma beam generates electricity, but is this what the plasma beam actually is? Let’s examine the other two options.

Lasers
Arrows are to Medieval as bullets are to modernity. Thus, lasers are to the future. What does the plasma beam have anything to do with lasers? We know that “The Plasma Beam’s three lasers can easily cut through enemies, continuing on to take out even more foes.”[4] Based on this information, we are told how the plasma beam can penetrate objects and enemies. Of course, the plasma beam isn’t the only beam capable of doing this. There’s also the wave, light, and nova beam. Yet, this is the defining characteristic of the plasma beam. Where the wave beam fails to pass through enemies, the plasma beam passes.

Let’s keep in mind that by “pass”, I do not mean that it doesn’t interact with the enemy. If it didn’t, then it would be as harmful as 60 billions neutrinos passing through your thumbnail per second. If we accept what is said from our source, we can then ask what it would take for a laser to generate plasma. In order to generate plasma, what a laser would need to do is ionize a solid, liquid, or gas. Since I am focused mainly on gases, I will work with air.

Light has different ranges and our eyes are only designed to observe approximately between 400 to 700 nm. Radio waves to visible light are considered non-ionizing radiation. These types of radiation aren’t necessarily harmful to us. Ionizing radiation is anywhere from ultraviolet to gamma rays. Ionizing radiation would allow ionization of air. What exactly is ionization? Well, it’s when an electron is added or removed from an atom or molecule. If added, it becomes a positively charged ion. If removed, it becomes negatively charged.[5]

Since nitrogen makes up most of air, this is what I will start off with. The necessary molar ionization energy of nitrogen is 1,402.3 kJ/mol.[6] Using Avogadro’s number— which is 6.022140857 × 10^23 moles[7]—and dividing the molar ionization energy over Avogadro’s number gives us 2.328076 × 10^-18 kg m^2/s^2. We can find the wavelength. We’ll need Planck’s constant and the speed of light and divide it by the energy we ended up with.

  • [(6.62607004 × 10^-34 m^2 kg/s)(299,792,458 m/s)] / (2.328076 × 10^-18 kg m^2/s^2)
  • 8.53256 × 10^-8 m., or 85.33 nm.[8]

What does this quantity mean? It means we are in the far ultraviolet light range. I’m not certain as to how far this would penetrate. It would definitely be a hazard to living organisms. While this would be a wavelength capable of ionizing nitrogen, I could also consider oxygen, the second most common element in the air. Oxygen has an molar ionization energy of 1,313.9 kJ/mol.[9] The third most common element of air is argon, which has a molar ionization energy of 1,520.6 kJ/mol.[10] Adding all of these together gives me 4,236.8 kJ/mol. Using the same equation as before to find the wavelength, this gives me 28.24 nm. This would still be in the far UV range.

Since living organisms are made up mostly of water, if I consider the difference in density between air and water where the density of air at sea level is 1.225 kg/m^3 and water is 1,000 kg/m^3, then this would mean water is 816.33 times denser than air. Taking 28.24 nm and dividing it by 816.33 gives us 3.459 × 10^-11 m., which is in the range between x-rays and gamma rays. This would make more sense, since x-rays pass through skin and muscles. It is possible that the wavelength of the plasma beam is higher, but I think x-rays should be sufficient.

There are a few objections as to why the plasma beam isn’t using lasers in spite of the information we are given. This mainly has to do with Samus’ mission on the B.S.L. The muzzle of the arm cannon doesn’t have the width equal to that of the beams fired. I have no reason to believe that this is the result of the plasma beam alone. Prior to acquiring the plasma beam, Samus acquires the wide beam, which widens the diameter of the beams. Every instance prior to this, we can observe Samus firing a single beam.[11][12][13][14] We can even observe the times when other beams alter the appearance.[15][16]

Fortunately evidence clearly states that the wide beam allows Samus “to shoot three normal beams at the same time.”[17] This reduces the possibility of redundancy and thus should satisfy the principle of parsimony. While we may attempt at explaining the way the wide beam allows for the plasma beam’s width, that may be reserved for another day. Let’s move onto the next possibility of how the plasma beam is generated.

Temperature
I think this would should be easy to determine in terms of quantification. If we were to ask ourselves just how hot you need air to be in order for it to become plasma, you could simply look for the Boltzmann constant. We might ask just how hot air could be at 1 eV. The value of Boltzmann constant for temperature is 8.62 × 10^-5 eV/K. Thus, 1 eV / 8.62 × 10^-5 is 11,604.52 K. Since nitrogen is the most common gas in air, and since it has an ionization energy of 14.534 eV, the necessary temperature to achieve nitrogen converting to plasma would be 168,660.12 K.

Conclusion
While all of these possibilities are interesting, the use of lasers is the only thing that our source states. This doesn’t necessarily mean the electrical discharge couldn’t be used if air and plasma share similarities with respect to conductivity. After all, in order for lightning to occur, it must ionize the air to create a plasma channel. In fact, if one were to use a laser to ionize air to generate plasma, one would create what is known as a laser-induced plasma channel. Does this occur with the plasma beam?

It is possible that this does occur with the plasma beam. If we know the plasma beam uses lasers, and if we know the plasma beam is firing plasma, and if we know that lasers can generate plasma, then we could say a laser-induced plasma channel is being generated every time Samus fires her beam. Again, we observe an electrical discharge whenever this beam is generated. While we could refer to the plasma beam as the plasma beam, if we were to give it a more accurate referent, it would actually be an electrolaser based on our information. Thus, the plasma beam is an electrolaser.

Source: [url='https://studiumphysicorum.wordpress.com/2017/01/24/what-is-the-plasma-beam/']Studium Physicorum[/url]

2b. Bombs

Power bomb yield
When it comes to nuclear weapons, Uranium^235 is the common fissile. If we wanted to determine the amount of energy that would be released from 1 gram of U^235, we would write it out as follows.

(1.00 g.) × (1 mol/235 g.) × (6.022 × 10^23 atoms/1 mol) × (3.2 × 10^-11 J/1 atom )

This is equal to 8.2 × 10^10 J. We don’t know the volume of Samus’ power bombs, but that’s all right. The required critical mass for U-235 with a neutron reflector is 15 kg., so 1 g. is honestly a humble choice to use. 8.2 × 10^10 J is equal to 82 GJ, which is 19.6 tons of TNT, or somewhere within the range of the Davy Crockett nuclear weapon.

2. Armor
Last edited by Mea quidem sententia on Tue May 23, 2017 1:33 pm, edited 9 times in total.
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Re: The Galactic Federation Database

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Re: The Galactic Federation Database

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Re: The Galactic Federation Database

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Re: The Galactic Federation Database

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